Navel Strength of Cholas
  • Navel strength of Cholas

    The overseas ventures of South India were ancient and extensive.
    South India had long trading relations with the west through
    transshipments at the Northern ports.

    Tamil kingdoms became prosperous and encouraged sea trade by
    developing harbours and providing quarters, warehouses and workshops
    for Roman sailors and merchants. The ports had navigational
    facilities like wharfs, repair yards, pilotage and even light houses.

    This growth in trade resulted with competition between the Chola, the
    Pandya and the Chera kings. Sri Lanka too was involved. In course of
    time the Cholas became powerful and prosperous.

    By the end of the 2nd century, voyages between India and South east
    Asia became frequent. Malays and Indonesians also participated in the
    growing traffic. The important South Indian trading ports were
    Muzirs, Poduca, and Sopatma.
    Barygaza in the gulf of Cambay and Tamralipti at the mouth of the
    1 st century to the 4th century, Chinese reports mention large
    numbers of Indians (Brahmins) staying in Malaya peninsula.

    There were other Indian settlements in other parts of South-East
    Asia. Indians had better organization, superior knowledge of
    agriculture and road building and an efficient civil service. The
    Indian merchant guilds enforced strict rules in trading practice,
    price regulations and in the maintenance of standards of production.

    They acted as bankers. Back home the trading cities became very
    wealthy. The port Barygaza (Gujarat) was full of foreign merchants
    and "There are more than a hundred families whose fortune amounts to
    over a million ounces of silver".

    The great Chola king Rajaraja 1 (AD 985 to 1014) tried to take the
    Chera country under his control and took the key part of Quilon. He
    is also said to have attacked Maldive Island and Sri Lanka. His son
    Rajendra 1 (1014 to 1042 AD.) prepared a naval expedition against Sri
    Vijaya, first taking Andaman and Nikobar Islands to serve as an
    advance base. The Chola fleet sailed on and took several coastal
    ports. This attack was only to break Sri Vijaya's commercial monopoly
    and not to occupy it permanently.

    Raja Rajendra, the powerful Chola king of the 10th century, knew the
    great importance of foreign trade and built a powerful navy meant for
    trade and war. He encouraged merchant guilds, checked his rival
    kings, the Cheras and the Pandyas and suppressed Sri Lankan
    competition by invading the island. He contained Arab competition by
    sending a naval expedition against Maldives to stop the Arabs from
    building and equiping merchant ships there. His successors, Rajendra
    Chola 1 and Virarajendra continued and strengthened the maritime
    tradition and made Tamil naval power invincible.

    Rajaraja Chola's son, Rajendra Chola extended Chola rule by further
    conquest. In 1025 AD he crossed the Bay of Bengal with a strong
    fleet, overran Pegu and later took the Andaman and Nicobar islands to
    use as a base for an attack on Sri Vijaya. The object of the attack
    was not to conquest and rule, but to break Srivijaya's commercial
    monopoly and end the vexations suffered by Chola traders - after
    settling the dispute, the two kingdoms had friendly relations.

    Rajendra appears to have made a naval attack an Srivijaya a second
    time, for reasons, which are not clear. The Kings of the far east
    recognised his power and sought his friendship.

    After Rajendra, the next famous Chola King was Virarajendra. His
    major campaign was directed against Sri Lanka where King Vijaya Bahu
    was forcibly expelling Chola settlers from Rohara. Virarajendra sent
    a strong naval force under his general against Sri Lanka. The Cholas
    won a great victory, entered Rohara and plundered several cities.
    Vijayabahu was put to flight, but returned to re-conquer his lost
  • Virarajendhra, has had to fight with Srivijaya, for some reasons
    again. So second time the Cholas hit them after Rajendhra Chola

    Abaya Kulothunga I, then Rajendhra, is believed to have lead the
    Chola team against Kadaaram and won them.

    Rajendhra Cholan!
  • Yep, This is the back-drop for the Kadal pura series.
  • Dear Bala
    All you mails are gems which I fear will be lost in the grand scheme of things may I urge you to file them as well in our files section please so that we can easily go back to read them
  • Dear sir

    Naval Strength of Cholas is well attested one in the History of Southern India. As Jawaharlal Nehru Pointed out in His 'Discovery of India', Apart from severed relations for crossing of the Chola Navayaikal across malacca strait in the Malayan peninsular during reign of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman aroun ca 1025 AD, There was an another reason for the Rajendra I for the Expedition against Srivijaya Kingdom that is , the Military assistance and logistical support was extended to the Singalease King by both Burmease King and the Father of V.T. varman. More than hundreds of Elephants were transported to Indian Mainland throu Navaigal. At this point, Even JH Nehru himself admires the Naval mighty of Imperial Cholas. This is also posted in the Official Web site of Myanmer. Even our Parliment inner Panels describe the Tamil Hero's Expedition Against the North India.

    G.S. Krishnan.
  • Dear SPS,

    I would suggest we create web blog for his information rich mails.If
    he can publish directly on the blog,well and good otherwise some of us
    can take up the publishing part.
  • WIKI, WIKI, WIKI... WIKIs are self-maintaining.

    /me looks around to see why the so many techies he saw at the meeting are

    Using yahoo groups for everything is like using a hammer as a tool for
    everything including open-heart surgery (paraphrased from a quote by Kamesh
  • Dear SPS Sir,

    I guess there is a mistaken identity on my name,that is why i
    guess you had referred me as Sir.I think am not the person whom you
    are referring to.So you can refer me as sami.To avoid any
    confusion,i will better put Sami as my signature instead of

    Coming back to the blogs,i think only Blogspot blogs are blocked.
    I hope Govt will remove the block soon.Anyway PS digest is also a
    good suggestion.
  • Dear Swamintahan
    thaough it is a welcome suggestion We would rather have it in the files section so when PSPV starts publishing it can be done from here
  • Dear All
    considering that it was only the cholas who were really imperialistic in their naval expeditions the Indian Govt should have atleast one Naval Vessel or Port named after the Great RRC or RjC
  • Good news for you Sri.
    Nagapattinam port is being offered to Private port operators and the Ministry of Shipping in their recently planned Marine Delvelopment Policy named this port for development as a major port.

    If I am correct, the T.N. Government (it controls state ports) should call some tenders in this year itself.
    When the port happened, our group can bring pressure to name the Nagapattinam as RRC Port. The Mumbai-II port named after Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • Dear

    It is alredy there.


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