Chola Gangam built after Kadaram expedition
  • dear all,

    Its my personal Interest to Analyze Rajendra's Ganges Expediton which I did due to afeel after reading the Novels Vengaiyin Mainthan, Mannan Magal, kangapurikkavalan and Kadal pura...Its a lengthy mail, pls be patience to read...

    After I'm joined in this group, I foundsome confuses arethere in the countries listed in Rajendra's Records...

    Dr.Jaybee's details about this expeditionshown me a new path...

    It made me to analyze the whole Indian kingdoms history from 750 to 1200 A.D... and under stand the happenings around the year 1020 which is the key time of this expedition...

    while Surfing, I noticed Our Virarajendra @ Hari sirs Research extract about this expedition which attracted mealso shown a different Direction...

     The scholars view about the Ganges conquest is DIGVIJAYA ( i.e ) conquest of Quarters... whichhas beennoted in Tiruvalangadu copper plates of Rajendra...

    I would like to say " the concept of Digvijaya " is not Right... because of the date of Tiruvalangadu copper plates is, after the year 1026...

    Rajendra indirectly recorded his victory against Mahmud Ghazni by sayingthat " i'm the conquerorof GANGA river "

    while analyzing the details about Ganga riverscholars clearly said " River Ganga divided into SEVEN streams after it's arrival to the Earth... 

    The Names of the Seven Streams " Bagirathi, Sita, Chakshu, Sindhu, Hladini, Nalini and Pavani " none of these streams were not called as Ganga... before its branching only it is called as "GANGA"...

    Inthe later days the people used tocall " Bagirathi as Ganga " which is amere notification of its a branch of Ganga... its to be noted that the seven streams are  passing throughthe mleccha countries also... Fromthescholar's words about puranic accounts of those countries, most of them are Mlechha tribes living countries..

    the regions between saraswati river and Varnasi, Himalaya and Narmadha river - which wascalled as Madhya Desa, is the Pure Land and allthe others are Impure lands ( Mleccha countries )... Mleccha tribes are the people who never followed the vedic Dharma(i.e) never Do the Rituals ( Sradhdha Ceremany)  for their ancestors..

    The purpose of Ganga's Arrival to the Earth is togive Mokshato the ancestors of Bagiratha, who Brought the Ganga by his austerities...

    this Sradhdha ceremony was done by thepeopleat Varanasion the Bagirathi river, because of the other countries were the Mleccha countries... thats why this Bagirathi river was called as GANGA... ( refer to Rajendra's Meikeerthi line " வெறி மலர் தீர்த்தத்து எறிபுனல் கங்கையும் " ( i.e ) the Ganga River which was filled with flowers and its wavy water dashed on the Bathing stations... )

    as the Time goes, later all the other streams were got different names according to the language of the people who were lived ontheir banks...

    I would like to say " GANGA " means the Whole seven streams andRajendra's Claiming as GangaiKondan isnot acceptable, if it means only the Bagirathi... 

    The reason for Building " CHOLA GANGAM " after the Kadaramconquest proves this Seven streams... the translation of the sanscrit portion by the scholars says " WATERS OF GANGA "which I doubt that the writing of this term should mean STREAMS OF GANGA... (the archeolagy people in our group maylook at the sanscrit portion and could confirm it )

    Also the crossing of Ganga, beforeKosala Desa which is a Mistakeof Composing ?

    But Its notable that the TVDU platesdo notspeakabout Sakkarakkottam to Masuni Deasam.. Instead of these5 places it speaks the Ganges River crossing... which givena dispute between the scholars...

    To under stand the theory behind the scene we must study the Political Condition ofIndia around the year 1020... those details are as follows...

    1018 :
    1. Bhimapala,
    son of TrilochanaPala was imprisoned by Chandradeva, king of SHARWA at while he went for alliance by marriage …
    1019 :
    2. Mahmud
    Ghazni attacked Sirsava, Bulandshahr, Mathura, Kannauj, Manjawan, Asai, sharwa…
    Ghazni left a Large part of his army at Mathura…
     3.  Jayasimma
    and Shasthadeva records their capture of Dhara, capital of Malwa…

    In the book Bhojaraja, P.T srinivasa
    Ayyangar says jayasimma captured dhara at when Bhojaraja ,the king of Malwa was not in his capital…
    he was?
    author of the book “ Inscriptions of Kachapagthas,paramaras, chandelas etc… analyzes Bhojaraja’s Prasasti and says
    from the words of Al – Gardizi: In the time of Kannauj expedition, Mahmud ghazni Diverted his route to avoid
    Bhojaraja… )
    4. Jaysimma Claims
    victory against the Elephant Troops of Bhojaraja, Gangeya and Rajendra
    5. Rajendra
    Claims Victory against Jayasimma at the battle of Musangi ( Maski )
    6. Bhojaraja
    recovered his Capital and southern regions…
    7. Vidhyadhar
    chandela and Arjuna, king of Gwalior claims victory against Kannauj king
    Rajyapala who accepted the suzeranity of Mahmud Ghazni… ( Arjuna’s Arrow penetrated the
    Neck of Rajyapala )
    ( The scholars Who are analyzing
    this issue, blames Vidhyadhara for this
    attack and Killing of Rajayapala.
     When we see
    the Nature of the Death of Rajyapala, arrow penetrates the Neck seems to be
    Immoral while compare with yudhdha-Dharma )
     1020 :
    8. Mahmud
    Ghazni attacked Trilochanapala, For Joining with Vidhyadhar chandela…
    9. After
    defeat and retreat, Trilochanapala was killed by his Own Mutinous Troops..
    10.( Bhimapala, son of Trilochanapala took refuge at
    Bhojaraja… from the words of Alberuni “
    a prince of Pala Dynasty of Kabul took Refuge at Bhaojaraja ” )
     11.  Vidhyadhar chandela escaped from the Battle field
    before war; even he was prepared for a tough war…
    In this battle field Vidhyadhar’s army was about 3,00,0000… Mahmud also
    possesed more than the same number…)
     12.  Suryavarma, the king of Eastern Kamboja ( Cambodia )
    sought Friendship of Rajendra…
    1021 to 1024 :
    13. Arjuana met his death and his son Kirtiraja ascends.
    14. Amir Abul Muzaffer Nazir, the Younger Brother of
    Gahzni and the commander of Ghazni’s
    army met his Death..
    15. Arzlan khan, the king of Turkistan met his death
    16. 15 forts of Ghazni was gifted by him to vidhyadhar
    17. Bhimapala crowned as the king of Pala dynasty of Kabul
    and ruled for 5 years ( 1021 to 1026… No definite details about his dominions )
    18. In the year 1023, Mahmud’s army strength was 53000 at
    the outpost of his empire ( after Gifting the 15 forts … )
    19. Rajendra Claims his Victory against the Kings in
    Uttarapaha ( Northwestern Bharatha Varsha )
    20. Indraratha king of kosala, met his death
    21. Mahasivaguptha Chandihara Yayati II, Ascends the
    throne of Kosala at Swarnapura @sonepur
    22. Dhanmapala, ruler of Dandabhukthi met his death…
    23. Rajendra Claims the victory against Kosala and Palas
    of Bengal.
    24. Gangeyadeva claims victory against Trikalinga ...
    25. Bhojaraja claims victory against Indraratha and
    Turks… He brought the water of Indus
    river and celebrated his victory against Turks at Ujjain Mahakal temple (
    inscription )… ( ref. the book : Thamilaga Varalarum Makkal Panpadum )
     1025 - 1027 :
     26. Rajendra
    claims victory against Srivijayam Empire of Kadaram…

     27. Bhimpala, Met his death

     28. Ghazni attacked somnath

     Thats all the related details about the polical condition of India in 1020 A.D...

     without clearlyidentifying thecountries of Rajendra's Meikeerthi ( PRASASTHI) we cant under stand why Rajendra went to North...

    pls look at the following...

    Rajendra’s Empire
    Countries appears in Rajendra’s meikeerthi :

    IdaiThurai - south eastern karnataka.
    Vanavasi - Banvas, karnataka
    Kollippakkai - Kulpak,
    kadakam - Manyakheta, Karnataka
    Palpalantheevu - maldives
    - Goa ( ref. chola navigation package )
    Musangi  - Maski, Karnataka
    IrattaPadi -  ( western Chalukya kingdom ?)
    Sakkrakkottam - bastar region, chattisgargh
    Mathura mandalam - ?
    Namanaikkonam - ?
    Panjappalli   - ?
    Masuni Desam - ?
    Visayam - Odra desa, Province of Kosal nadu
    Nadu - Parts of Chattisgarh and
    Buththi – Border Regions of Orissa and
    Ladam - Southern regions of Bengal
    Desam - Eastern Regions of Bengal
    Ladam - Northern Regions of Bengal

    Sri Vijayam - Kingdom : capital Palempang
    - East coast of Sumatra.
    Malaiyur –
    – parts of malay peninsula
    ilangasokam - langasuka
    Mapappalam - papphala , on the coast of pegu…
    – kamalanga, on the isthus of ligor.
    – panduranga, in champa
    – takkola, on the isthmus of kra
    Madamalingam - tambralinga – center was ligor
    desam - northeren tip of sumatra
    manakkavaram - the nicobar islands
    kadaram –

    ( Kadarm – countries
    from the Book : The Indianized States Of South East Asia by George Coedes… )
    Indian - countries,
    from SII volumes, The Cholas, Palas of Bengal and Cultural History and profile
    of South Kosala…)
    Already I have givenmy view about Mathura Mandalam… 

    Now my view about Masuni Desam as follows;
    Masuni Desam :
    notification of this Name is “ country of Nagas ” seems to be a bit
    differs from the meaning of the word “
    Masuni ”.
    - a tamil literature mentions this word
    in connection with indisciplined activities.
    The verse
    is “ Masuni tham kil mel Kollar ” (மாசுணிதம் கீழ் மேல் கொள்ளார் ) ( i.e ) the people who are great by their activities won’t use the Unclean or IMPURE things .
    This line gives a view about the word MASUNAM,
    which the scholars proposed to identify as Naga kingdom…
    The word
    Masunam originates from the word Masuni
    ( i.e ) The snake gets this name because
    of it creeps on the ground and becomes dirty or unclean or impure…. ( ref.
    Panniru thirumurai Pattum porulum
    Now the
    meaning of the word Masuni as Impure gives a different view of the country…
    desam - Impure Land (i.e) the country
    which was inhabitaed by the Impure People…
    Personal and
    Geographical names in Gupta’s
    And some
    more books deals with the MLECCHAs…
    also Help in this …

    are the people who are being known as the Impure one…
    Because of they never follow the
    vedic dharma ; in simple terms, never do the rituals ( sradhdha ceremony ) for
    their ancestors…
    also says that the mlecchas are arabs…
    All the scholars deals with the
    mlecchas , gives a list of Mleccha tribes…
    In the
    medival time the Turks and arabs are called as Mlechhas…
    For the
    origin of Mlecchas, pls have a look in the blog “ Tamilan dravidana ” ( Unfortunately it’s in tamil. Google
    Translate may help the other language Translation… )
    Now the Masuni Desam is the Mleccha Desa… ( i.e ) in the Mean time
    of Rjc the Mlecha tribes are Turks and Arabs…
    kingdoms are :
    1. Ghazna
    2. Turkistan
    Arab Kingdoms are :
    1. Baghdad
    kingdom ( over Lords of other mleccha kingdoms; this arab kingdom was being
    called as MahaMleccha )
    2. Multan
    kingdom ( multan, pakistan )
    3. Mansura
    kingdom ( hyderabad regions of Pakistan )

    Ghazna Kingdom : (
    year 1020 )
    Southern Border was Arabian Sea
    Northern Border was Oxus or Amu
    Darya river
    Western border was Tigris river
    valley ( or ) eastern border of the arab kingdom of Baghdad.
    Eastern Border was The Ganges -
    Yamuna Doab and to its north upto
    Himachal pradesh…
    Now lets turn to the Scholars words
    ( i.e ) The regions Mathura mandalam, Namanaikkonam, Panjappalli are belongs to Masuni Desam…
    The above said names are clear Tamil
    words which are impossible to be named in Tamil in the northern countries of
    Medieval India… the languages of all the
    countries are notified by Alberuni and Sanscrit was commonly in use for naming…

    Namanaikkonam :
    In the book
    “ Ulaga maha chakravarthi Rajendra cholan by, notifies Namanaikonam and Panjappalli are
    lies in the Hyderabad region , india…
    Virarajendra@Hari sir locates this place in Haryana state, india…
    I cant find
    any other scholars Notifications about this country… In the cholas, sri.K.A.N.
    simply says that these countries are to be found to the North west of Vengi...
    most of the scholars says “ not satisfactorily identified…”
    Now, I try
    to analyze the name Namanaikkonam.
    Normally a place is named by means of a reason; it’s a
    common practise…
    This name
    alternativley written as Namanaikkonai in Meikeerthi…
    Konam and
    Konai means the same ; Angular…
    This name
    could be splitted as Nangu + manai +
    Konam (i.e) Four + Palace + Angular
    According to the name our’s vishwaksenan sir says that the place which
    had Four Forts situated in four
    I would like
    to add a word with this description
    which would be the exact meaning ; The four forts situated in Four angular
    directions ( NW, NE, SE and SW )…
    locating these four forts, let’s analyze the description given in Meikeerthi…
    this country is notified as “ Kamidai valai Namanaikkonam ”… scholars says
    that “ Namanaikkonam surrounded by a
    Dense Jungle ”
    In the word Kamidai – midai is
    originated from the word “ midaithuru - which means Dense jungle ”.
    It is
    acceptable that the word midai is used to show the prescence of a dense
    jungle near by Namanaikkonam… now here, a doubt occurs that why it is written as
    There is a
    possiblity to consider that the letter “ ka ” is attached as a silent partner
    for the word Midai… like writing “ i ”lankeswara in tamil…

    But, we have
    a list of forests around Mathura mandalam…
    In these
    forests, a forest’s name “ Kamyaka vana
    ” sounds like“ kamidai ” { KAMIDAI èKAMYAKA }
    … it appears as the tamil notification for this Kamyaka vana… this kamyaka vana
    was Inhabited by the Pandavas the mahabharatha fame, later by the Brahmins and
    This Kamyaka
    vana was stretched from the western Banks of saraswathi river to the sutlej
    river’s confluence with Sindh river ( pressent haryana to UCH in pakistan ( ref.
    the book : selections in mahabharatha )
    Now the Four
    forts are as follows
    1. Bathinda,
    punjab, india ( NE )
    2. Sirsa, Haryana,
    india ( SE )
    3. Bhatnair (
    Hanumangargh), rajasthan, india ( SW)
    4. Abohar,
    punjab, india ( NW )
    ( google
    maps could help to find their quadrilateral locations )
    In the medieval time, this region
    was notified as Bhati.. by muhammedan
    Muhammad nazim, the author of the book “ the life and times of Sultan mahmud of ghazna ” clearly analyzes about these four
    forts as notified by Alexander
    Cunningham .
    These four forts are appearing
    separately in later history of india…
    But , yuan chwaang’s notification
    of the country ( 7th century) “ Sata duru” which had Sutlej river as its western border… seems to be
    this region… The Authors of the books “
    the ancient geography of india and Yuan chwang’s travels in india ” do not say its right name …
    I’d like to say that, the name should be a phonetic resemblance of the sanscrit word “ Sathur Durggam ”
    which means Four forts…
    This Bhati was captured by ghazni
    Mahmud in the year 1004-5.
    Later in the time of prithviraj
    chauhan the same Bhati also appears …
    Some Scholars notifies Bathinda and some notifies Bhatnair  for this Bhati, in both the cases of Ghazni and prithviraj…
    one of these two forts seems to be the main fort and the other three were
    supporting forts…


    name also not well analyzed by the scholars like Namanaikkonam… I cant find scholar’s words related to this country…
    I try to analyze the name …
    can be splitted as Panjam + Palli …
    Panjam means Dry, Five, etc…
    Palli means school, Gathering
    point, Joining, confluence, etc…
    Panjam first meaning as Dry, can
    not be used in a country’s name which would show its a Dry Country…
    so, I select the Meaning “ Five ”
    Palli - I would like to use the meaning Confluence, which means “ Sangamam ” ( i.e) palli as sangamam could
    be the right one…
    We are at
    Namanaikkonam, so need to search
    panjappalli around it only…
    The name “ Panjab ” gives a view to the name Panjappalli…
    Panj – ab is
    a Persian notifaction of Five waters or
    Five rivers…
    Those five
    rivers are as follows : ( from the west ) Jhelum, Chenab, Rawi, Beas, Sutlej…
    These five
    rivers have a speciality, ( i.e ) these rivers joins one with another from
    Jhelum to Sutlej.
    1. Jhelum
    joins Chenab ( Jhelum + Chenab ) then
    flows as Chenab…
    2. Chenab + Rawi; then flows as Chenab ( this two sangama happens west to multan )
    3. Chenab +
    Beas ; then flows as chenab
    4. Chenab +
    Sutlej; then flows as Chenab ( this two
    sangama happens south east to multan )
    5. Then Chenab
    joins Indus below UCH, in Pakistan…

    These confluence conditions are in
    the mean time of Rjc… as Explained by Alexander Cunningham…
    ( at present panjnadi joins Indus below Mithankot which is some
    distance above UCH . Beas joins Sutlej
    The Place at
    where the Sutlej joins Chenab was called as PanchaNadu in the time of Rjc...
    and the chenab was also called as
    the same place was Notified by yuvanChwang
    as “ Pi-chen-po-pu-lo ” … Alexander
    Cunningham simply said that it is the name of the capital of Sindh country, after refusing other scholars
    translation of this name …
    when I compare the other names
    noted by Yuan chwang, ( Po-lo-tu- lo
    as sa – la – tu – ra) and identified
    by the scholars, I would like to say “ Pa-nj-sa-pu-ra ” is the Phonetic Resemblance of yuvan chwang’s
    this region seems to be the place
    this place is described as “
    Venjilai Virar Panjappalli ” in Meikeerthi… an alternative writting for “
    venjilai is venjina ( very hard and tough ) in meikeerthi
    also appears ”
    scholars says “ Panjappalli had the
    warriors who possesed the Cruel Bows ”…
    We know The Fifth confluence took
    place below UCH, pakistan…
    At this UCH, an Yadheya tribe
    people were living at that time… this people’s
    nature and their strength were analyzed by Alexander cunningham… these Yadheyas
    were come into conflict with Ghazni Mahmud in the year 1027…
    This Yadheyas may be the “
    Venjilai or venjina viras ”
    The “ Panjappalli ” is the place at where the Fifth Confluence
    took place at where the panjnadi joins Indus…
    While analysing the political conditions, Ghazni’s gifting of 15 forts to Vidhyadhara
    seems to be an Indirect Notification of the Muhammaden Scholars to hide a
    defeat of Ghazni at the hands of Vidhyadhara, Bhojaraja, Gangeya and Rajendra…
    To ensure
    this , Vidhyadhra’s Inscriptions which are important, but scholars says no
    inscription of vidhyadara were found…
    prsasti and Ujjain Mahakal Inscription records his victory against Turks…
    Gangeya defeated
    a Muhammaden Governor of Punjab ( from some of the Blogs )
    also recorded his victory against The kings in Uttarapatha…
    thiruvalangadu copper plates do not speak about the regions from Sakkarakottam
    to Masuni desam… Instead of it, States about crossing the Ganges…
    crossing of Ganges means = Crossing of Indus ( One of the western streams of
    Ganges )
    This Indus
    has a condition ; it could be navigated only by Flat Bottom
    Because of
    Its depth is as low as to be navigated only by flat bottom boats…
    Its course
    of Water varies related to the climates… In the winter season it’s Very dry… at this time only
    Alexander, Yuan chwang, Muhammad bin Kasim, Mahmud ghazni and the others
    crossed the Indus …
    Its depth and
    Course of Water flow and Banks condition were fully analyzed by the British
    scholars ( Cabool and Travels into Bukhara, etc…) it is suitable for
    crossing by means of Elephant Bridge…
    At present
    The depth of Indus below Mithankot at where Panjnadi river joins Indus; is about4ft
    only ( winter season) …
    Here the
    season plays a role to determine the duration of the war…
    says that to complete the Ganges conquest took a Two years of Time; seems to be
    a long duration if it covers only chattisgarh to bengal while comparing with
    the chola army’s rapid move recorded in the details of Rajaraja I…
    To reach
    sakkarakkottam Rajendra need to cross Godavari, which should be done in Summer
    To reach
    mathura need to cross Yamuna in the summer or Autumn season…
    To reach
    the capital of Masuni Desam need to cross indus in the winter season…
    return the reverse sequence may also take another six months…
    Then moves
    towards bengal kingdom through kosal desa may also need enough time interval…
    so that the duration of this took a 2 years of journey… just to reach bengal,
    its impossible to take a 2 years which is a very long time toreach….

    As I have analyzed the regions:
    Mandalam :
    Mandalam was comprised Mathura, Sirsava, Bulandshahr, Kanauj, Manjawan, Asai,
    sharwa, Thanesar (Haryana), Narayanpur (Rajasthan)…
    ( while,
    scholars doubt about this mathura mandalam due to some mandalas near to
    sakkarakkottam ; but those names appears in the later years after Rajendra )
    The Four
    forts Of Bathinda, Sirsa, Bhatnair and Abohar which were in between
    The sindh
    country or southern Pakistan… which had Pancanadu or Panjapura as its capital
    in the ancient days…
    Masuni Desam :
    When we see
    the Descriptions given with the countries Sakkarakkottam to Masunidesam… we
    could feel a difference that sakkarakkottam and panjappalli is given with General
    epihets; other three with Geographical notifications…
    gives a view as kings or rulers of those countries joined with
    was a relatvie country of Bhojaraja… bhojaraja’s father married a princess of
    In the list
    of countries sakkarakkottam to Masuni desam; Rjc notifies Mathura region next
    to sakkarakkottam…
    Between these
    two countries ;
    three countries of Bhojaraja, Gangeya and
    vidhyadhara were not notified; also confirms the Confederacy of them with

    Finally, the Masuni Desam is the indication of the EMPIRE of Sultan Mahmud Ghazni...
    In our group's earlier discussions, no.of members were raised many doubts about this conquest and hard comments on Rajendra also...

    Its allthe details about the Ganges conquest which I foundrelated to the doubts of Our members...

    If the Details of Northern india was fully collected by the scholars from the inscriptions, there wont be any confusionsabout this war...

    On the whole, the history of Northern indiatotally belongs to theMuhammaden historians and Travellers... because of most of the Temples were lost to the time...

    I request our membersto analyzetheabove details and share your views...regards...

  • Dear Sakthi,

    I am not an expert on history like the core members, so wouldnt
    comment on the content, but looks like this is very extensive analysis
    on Rajendra, should have taken months/years to come up with these
    conclusion. Very good and informative thread.
  • dear all,

     the following details about The General, whoLead the Ganges campaign of Rajendra...

    In the book "Ulaga Maha Chakravarthi Rajendra Cholan" the author Ku.Ma.Kannan says that,the general " DhandaNayagan Soman Kumaran @ Madhuranthaka Marayan,who errected a statue of Rajendra at sivapuram, may bethe commander in chief of this conquest.

    Also says that,the scholar RAJASEKARA THANGAMANI has concluded that Arayan Rajarajan was the C- in – C, on the basis of musangi battle which was lead by him in the year 1019. He was honoured by aTitle as " JAYA SINGA KULA KALAN  "for defeating the Western Chalukya king JAYA SINGA. but the date ofGanga conquest falls on 1021 - 23.

    Tiruvalangadu copperplates says about the general as follows

     V. 110.) Accordingly (he) ordered the commander of the army who had
    powerful battalions (under his control), who was the resort of heroism
    (and) the foremost of diplomats, — to subdue the enemy kings occupying
    (the country on) the banks of that (river).


    In the Introduction section of this SII volme 3... the Author Sri. K.V. Subrahmanya Ayyar, says the following about the General and the army,

    The conquest of Northern India by the Cholas must have
    taken place in 1023 A.D. the above account shows that it was a general of the
    Chola king who conducted his campaign.But it is somewhat difficult to believe how a single Chola army could
    overrun within one year such a vast tract of country.It is also said that after vanquishing the
    kings of the Gangetic countries Rajendra-Chola’s general caused the water of the
    sacred river to be brought to the Chola capital on the heads of the conquered

    Now Lets have a look at meikeerthi lines of Rajendra II ( son of Rajendra chola I )

    “ தன் சிறிய தாதையாகிய எறிவலி கங்கை கொண்ட சோழனைபொங்கி கல் இருமுடி கொண்ட சோழனென்றும் ”

    In this line, Rajendra II honoured, his Father's Younger brother " Erivali Gangai Konda Chola " by giving another title as " Pongi Kal Irumudi Chola "

    The actual name of Rajendra I's Younger Brother is not Known...

    He was called as " Erivali Gangai Konda chola " which shuld be his Title given by Rajendra I...

    This name shows me a link to the meikeerthi Lines of Virarajendra ( son of Rajendra I )... the line as follows...

    " தன் கழல் அடைந்த மன்னவர்க்கு கடாரம் எறிந்து கொடுத்தருளி ”

    scholarsexpalains about this line " Vira rajendra restored Kadaram on a request of Its King, who lost it to his Opponents

    ( For an interesting Refernce Plsread the Novel " Kadal Pura " By Sri. Sandilyan... the Basic Plot of this novel is, this Kadaram Restoration by KulottungaandIlaiya pallava)

    In this line the term " Erinthu ( எறிந்து ) has been used to notify the Restoration of the country "

    the same term " Eri " also appears in the Title of Rajendra I's younger brother as " Erivali Gangai Konda chola ".

    Gangai konda chola is the Title of Rajendra I...

    His younger brother's title also resembles the same... but a difference has been made to indicate,

    the one Who had Power to Restore (எறிவலி )GANGA from its occupants... ( the term " vali " means " Power " )

    Tiruvalangadu plates says " Rajendra Ordered hiscommander to restore the Ganga "

    If my assumption about this Term " எறிவலி " is Right,

     The Commander in Chief whoLead the Ganga Campaign should be Rajendra's Younger Brother, The ERIVALI GANGAI KONDA CHOLAN...

      In the book "Ulaga Maha Chakravarthi Rajendra Cholan " the author Ku.Ma.Kannan, listed the officials and Generals of Rajendra I.

     In the list ,one of Rajendra's vassal kings" Gangai Konda Miladudaiyar " also appears... which gives a view as " a king of Tirukkovilur Malayaman family also took part in this Campaign... "

    Meikeerthi lines Reference from " Project Madurai - Meikeerthislist of Pandya, vijayanagara, chola kings "

    These Details are my own analysis with my little Tamil Knowledge and by comparing the scholars words about some other details...

    Our's Learned Members could Give more Details about the commander in chief...

    Some of the details Which I'm Unable to Collect, are as follows :

    1.Text of Ennayiram Inscription of Rajendra

    2.Text of Bhojaraja's Ujjain Mahakhal Temple Inscription which records His victory against Turks

    If anyone of our Membershavethese, could confirm some details about Rajendra's Ganges Campaign... anyone ?

    Thanking You

    Sakthi sree

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