kingdoms identified themselves with cholans
  • there were a few dynasties called themselves cholans in places other than traditional cholamandalam.
    1. chalukya cholas(11-12th century coastal andhrapradesh)
    2. hoysala cholas( 13th century karnataka)
    3.chodagangas( 14th century odissa)
    4. telugu chodas ( rayala seema region 5-8th century?)
    5.jaffna chola chakravarthis ( 14th century northern ceylon)
    6. kongu cholas( western tamil nadu-5-8th century?)
    7. thai cholas ( thailand 12th century)
  • Sir, Kongu Cholas period is 11th to 13th C - isnt it?
  • add later cholas too?
    who before vijayalayan to connect them to original cholas?

  • thank you, correcting myself.gandhi
  • its the second time its happening. one of my old messages coming up again. seems so out of context

  • Orriyuran is belived to be the father of Vijayalaya Chola.
    Please go through the follwoing text:
    Thiruttani and Velanjeri Copper Plates
    A chance find of a bronze group of Vrshavahana, Devi and a bull, with a prabha,
    by playful School Children at the Village Velanjeri near Thiruttani, on
    6-10-1977 led to the discovery of two important Copper Plate grants, one issued
    by the Pallava ruler Aparajita and another by Parantaka Chola I. A metal object
    resembling a nail was found in their school play ground by the school boys. Out
    of curiosity the boys uncovered a part of the earth and found to their surprise
    a metal image. With the help of their teacher they skillfully dug out the image
    and soon found another image and a bull lying there carefully burried. From the
    report of the teacher, it is seen that the images, were deliberately burried,
    possibly fearing some desecration or theft. The find of these bronze images
    attracted large crowds from the nearby villages and the story of the find
    appeared in the news-papers. Where upon, I deputed the Registering Officer of
    the Department to inspect the find and submit a report. During his investigation
    the villagers who discovered the find handed over the two historic copper plates
    which are now in the custody of the Tamil nadu Department of Archaeology.

    Both the copper plates are intact and are fairly well preserved. One of the
    copper plates was issued by the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman in his ninth year.
    The other one was issued by Parantaka Chola in the 25th year about 930 A.D. Both
    these plates, particularly the Pallava copper plate throws very valuable light
    on the political and religious history of Tamilnadu and is the most important
    discovery in recent years.

    The Pallava copper plate mentions the gift of taxes to the Subrahmanya temple on
    the top of Thiruttani hill by the Pallava ruler Aparajitavarman who is portrayed
    as a great devotee of Lord Subrahmanya. For the first time, the history of the
    famous Subhramanya temple of Thiruttani is taken to a very remote antiquity. The
    present copper plates shows that the Subrahmanya temple was in existence even
    earlier than 900 A.D.

    The Pallava copper plate is also important from another angle. Hitherto the
    place of Aparajita Pallava in the Pallava line was not known. For the past
    hundred years Scholars have been trying to assess his position and his
    relationship with other Pallava rulers and contemporaries. Aparajita was
    considered the son of Nandivarman and a step-brother of Kampavarman and so on.

    All the surmises of scholars are proved wrong by the present discovery. The
    present Velanjeri copper plate mentions that Aparajita was the son of Pallava
    ruler Kampavarman through a Ganga Princess whose name is given as Vijaya. The
    copper plate also details the relationship between Kampavarman and Nrpatunga and
    also the battles won by Aparajita which are of vital interest to the history of
    the latter Pallavas. The present copper plate throws very valuable light and
    removes many confusions that have been prevalent with reference to the history
    of later Pallavas.

    The Chola copper plate is also of great interest. It refers to the conquest of
    Kanchipuram and erection of imposing palaces there by Karikala Chola. It
    mentions the spider story about the birth of Koccengannan. For the first time,
    the name of Vijayalayachola's father is known as Orriyuran. About Parantaka, the
    donor, the copper plate states that he performed Tulabhara in the temples of
    Kanyakumari, Ramesvaram and Srirangam.

    Both the copper plates were said to have been in a clay pot which has also been
    recovered. The plates and pot were willingly gifted to the Tamil Nadu State
    Department of Archaeology, by the villagers. The texts and translations of the
    copper plate charters and also a brief history of Thiruttani are published here.

    The image of Siva standing on a pedestal is about 95 c.m. in height. The Devi
    also standing is about 93 c.m. and the Bull 40 c.m. All the three are placed on
    a badhrapitha of 15 c.m. in height. A prabha, somewhat broken, covering all the
    three images about 280 c.m. has also been found. The form of Siva seems to
    indicate an early date while that of the Devi and the bull seems to be some what
    later. They fit in with the pedestal. The images probably belong to a period
    between 950 and 980 A.D.

    APARAJITA'S PLATE Among the two copper plate charters found at Velanjeri,
    Aparajita's plate is the earliest. The charter consists of five plates fastened
    to a seal. The charter has not suffered any damage, and is available in full.

    The plates, five in number, are 27 cm. in length and 10 cm. in width; the ring
    is 16 cm. in diameter; the seal 9.5 cm. in diameter is countersunk to a debth of
    1 cm. The plates are not numbered. The first and the last pages of the plates
    are not inscribed. The letters are deeply cut and fairly well written with few

    The seal The seal which is intact, carries the figure of a seated bull in the
    centre facing left. It is typical of the bulls found in other Pallava seals and
    stone sculptures. It is flanked by lamps on stands (Kuttu vilakku). Above the
    bull are shown ashtamangalas, (the eight auspices symbols), among which Kendi,
    Srivatsa, lamp and mirror are clearly visible. This is topped by an umbrella and
    fly whisks flanking the parasol. In the rim portion is an inscription in grantha
    characters reading- Svasti Sri - ntrasa siras sreni sri sikha sayi sasanam
    rajnah Pallava vamsendoh sri Aparajitavarmanah. Aparajitavarmanah The verse ends
    with the word Aparajitavarmanah i.e. of Aparajita varman. This word is repeated
    again as Aparajitavarmanah immediately below the seated bull. The repetition of
    this word is not only interestsing but also rare. It seems to indicate that the
    seal is that of Aparajita and that the same word in the verse relates to the
    royal sasana as a whole.

    A point of interest is that the seal was embossed by a smith, whose name is
    given as Videlvidugu Perun-kannan. So far we have not come across in the Tamil
    country the name of the artist who embossed the royal seal. It shows that the
    kings had in their employment artisans to inscribe the order on the plates and
    separate artisans to emboss the seals.

    The Grant The grant was issued by the Pallava ruler, Aparajita, in his ninth
    regnal year.

    After giving the mythical genealogy of the Pallavas, the grant begins with
    Kampavarman. He seized the throne from Pallava Nrpatunga with glory. A certain
    Vijaya of matchless virtues and born of the Ganga family, was his queen.
    Aparajita was their son. Aparajita destroyed the elepants of the Bana ruler,
    captured Karanai,the Pandya city, and won a great battle against the Chola at

    At the request of one Vamanayya, the king gifted the village Pudur, in
    Thiruttaniyal nadu, to the sabha of Melirunjeru as a devatana brahmadeya and
    stipulated that the village should pay one thousand kadi of paddy as Pancavara
    to Lord Subrahmanya who is pleased to stand on the hill. The record details the
    boundaries of the lands gifted, the tax exemptions and the privileges conferred
    on the village.

    A certain Podini Mahadeva bhatta was the composer of this grant.
    This silpin Vijayanna engraved the charter and a certain Videlvidugu Perunkannan
    embossed the seal.

    Language The grant, like all other Pallava grants of the seventh and eighth
    century A.D. is bilingual, written in Sanskrit and Tamil.

    The Sanskrit portion is in poetry and prose. The poetic version describe the
    explooits of Kampavarman, and Aparajita and extols the greatness of Vijaya, the
    mother of Aparajita.

    The prose part closely follows the style of the age, as reflected in Bana's
    'Kadambari', 'Harsha Carita' and also the prose portion of the Kuram plates of
    Paramesvara varman. It contains a long drawn out passage and is written with an
    eye on word play. It is a beautiful composition, essentially musical. Mahadeva
    the composer, was certainly an eminent poet, who inherited his father's poetic
    talent. His father Srikumara is praised as a composer of mahakavyas. The
    drafting of the Tamil portion is equally good and free from mistakes.

    The plates
    Parantaka's charter, consists of five plates fastened to a ring and seal. The
    plates measure 22 cm. in length, 6.5 c.m. in breadth and 3 m.m. in thickness.
    The charter is engraved on both the sides of all the copper plates. The ring and
    seal are intact. The lertters are fairly well preserved.

    The seal
    The seal, fairly well preserved and measuring 7.5 c.m. in diameter is fastened
    to a ring 15.0 c.m. in diameter. On the face of the seal is found the chola
    emblem, viz. two fish and a seated tiger placed on a bow flanked by two lamp
    stands and topped by a parasol and two chauris. Running around the emblem is an
    inscription in grantha characters recording that it is a charter of
    Parakesarivarman. The inscription is fully preserved. The emblem and the letters
    are embossed from a mould and are not chisselled. The inscription on the seal

    Svasti Sri Srimat chandra nyuteneva Chola vamsa sikhamaneh Sasanam Chola
    bhubartuh Parakesarivarmanah.

    The grant
    The grant is in two parts, the first part is in Sanskrit, written in grantha
    characters and the second part is in Tamil, in Tamil characters. Both the parts
    refer to the gift of villages made by Parantaka chola, the Sanskrit part being
    brief and the Tamil part giving detailed descriptions of the lands, taxes
    exempted etc. However it is in the Sanskrit portion the geneology of the grantor
    is given, which is of great interest for reconstructing history. Like all other
    copper plates of the period, the sanskrit portion is in poetry and prose.
    However the sanskrit portion lacks the poetic embellishments found in
    Aparajita's charter. The Sanskrit part consists of 17 verses followed by a

    Parantaka's plate is dated in his 25th regnal year, 932 A.D. It gives the names
    of the progenitors of the Chola line beginning with Vishnu, followed by Brahma,
    Marichi, Kasyapa, Surya and Usinara. Karikala, Sibi and Koccengannan receive
    special attention. The tale of Sibi is often repeated in all the Chola records
    and literature. This record says that Lord Agni took the form of a vulture and
    came chasing the dove. With a view to save the suffering and life of the dove,
    Sibi gave his own flesh and rescued the dove from torture.

    Three important events in the life of Karikala are mentioned. (1) He caused the
    crest of the Cholas marked on the slopes of Himalayas. (2) He raised embankments
    on either side of river Kaveri and controlled its flood and (3) he made Kanchi a
    city of palaces.

    Parantaka Chola's Udayendram plates(1) mention only the name of Karikala without
    referring to his exploits. Hence this is perhaps the earliest Chola record to
    refer to the exploits of Karikala. The two points of historic interest are the
    raising of embankments on either side of river Kaveri; and his conquest upto
    Kanchi. Regarding the later event, Prof. Sastri has the following to say(2) 'His
    conquest of Tondaimandalam and settlement of agrarian colonies there, are other
    elements in the Karikala legends, that can find no support from the earliest
    authorities on his reign. It would seem that Tondainadu was ruled by Tondaiman
    Ilamtiraiyan in the days of Karikala and there is no satisfactory evidence in
    support of the suggestion that has been made that this chieftain was the
    grandson of Karikala or atleast a viceroy appointed by him after his conquest of

    The above views of Sastri need modification in the light of the present grant.
    This seems to suggest that Karikala's power extended upto Kanchi and that
    Karikala fortified the city and built great palaces. According to literary
    sources Karikala's son is said to have married a Naga princess and the child
    born to them was called Tiraiyan. The word Tiraiyan is derived from the legend
    that he was wafted on the shore by the waves of the sea (tirai-i.e.-wave).
    Interestingly an eighth century Pallava copper plate seems to lend support to
    this legend. The Kasakkudi plate(3) referring to the lake (now called Tenneri)
    Triayaneri calls it in the sanskrit portion as Tira-laya-tataka. Tira-laya
    (wafted on the shore) appears as the Sanskrit equivalent of Tiraiyan. This
    legend seems to have been popular long before 8th century., the date of the
    Kasakkudi plates. Karikala's conquest of Kanchi as suggested by the present
    copper plate of Parantaka shows that it was a historical fact and that Tiraiyan
    was in some way connected with Karikala.

    The legend of Koccengannan, being a spider in his earlier birth and on account
    of weaving a web over the linga, is referred to in saint Appar's Devaram in 7th
    Century A.D. The story of Kaccengannan being a spider and blessed by Siva,
    taking birth in the line of Cholas is mentioned in this grant. It seems to be
    almost a translation of what Saint Appar says in his Devaram.

    A point of interest is the number of battles won by Koccengannan, mentioned by
    Thirumangai Alvar.(4) In the Thirunaraiyur Padigam (sacred hymns on the Lord of
    Thirunaraiyur), Thirumangai Alvar, calls him Sembiyan Koccengannan Koccolan, Ten
    nadan (Lord of the Southern country is Pandya), Kudakongan Ponninadan, Ten
    Tamilan, Vadapulakkon etc. Among the battles, Venni figures prominently, but his
    opponents at Venni are not mentioned. One Vilandavel is mentioned as an enemy
    defeated by him. Alundai, probably identical with Teralundur near Mayuram is
    also mentioned as a battlefield where he distinquished himself. Thirumangai also
    refers to the construction of seventy madakkoil to 'Entol Isar' generally
    identified with Siva. There are also others who consider this as a reference to
    ashta bujakara Vishnu. At any rate he seems to have been a great devotee of both
    Siva and Vishnu. While such great victories are mentioned by Thirumangai, a
    saint of eighth century A.D., no other record speaks of his conquests. Even this
    plate of Parantaka refers only to the spider story of Koccengannan. (Parantaka
    was not a religious fanatic. In this very copper plate his benefactions to
    Srirangam and Kanyakumari are mentioned). That this plate also refers to
    Koccengannan as a Sivabhakta and is silent abut this Vishnu bhakti would
    indicate that Thirumangai's reference to his construction of seventy mada temple
    to Entol Isar, seems to refer to Siva temples.

    Orriyuran, the father of Vijayalaya
    The charter refers to one Orriyuran born in that family. The inscription places
    Orriyuran immediately after Koccengannan.(5) The name Orriyuran is significant.
    Orriyur is the name of a sacred Saivite village near Madras and obviously the
    name Orriyuran is derived from this village. In the time of the early Cholas, a
    number of chieftains like the Irukkuvel and Ilangovel are seen bearing this
    name.(6) Obviusly these names were after this Chola who figures as the father of
    Vijayalaya in this record. Incidently this is the first time we get the name of
    the father of Vijayalaya as Orriyuran. The name of Vijayalaya is not
    specifically mentioned in this record but it says that the son of Orriyuran was
    a great fighter, the fire to the forest of enemy rulers. His son is mentioned as

    The record does not mention either the battles or conquests of Vijayalaya and

    Aditya's son is referred to as Parantaka. This charter is silent even about
    Parantaka's conquest though it was issued in the 25th year when he had made
    major conquests over Madurai and Lanka and assumed the title, 'Maduraiyum Ilamum
    Konda'.(7) His Udayendram plate issued a few years earlier refers to these
    conquests but yet they are not mentioned in this record. On the other hand this
    record refers to the performance of Tulabhara ceremonies in Ramesvaram
    Kanyakumari and Srirangam by Parantaka. This is new information furnished by
    this grant. It is known from other grants and ulas, that Parantaka covered the
    golden hall of Chidambaram with gold. The omission of reference to these events
    means nothing.

    It is difficult to say whether Parantaka gilded Chidambaram temple with gold
    after his 25th year or earlier.
  • According to Tiruthani Copper plates

    Vijayalaya's father's name was Otriyuran - named after the lord of thiruvotriyur
  • Interesting! Thanks!

    There's another Chola ruler mentioned in the Velurpalayam plates of
    Nandivarman III, called Kumarankusa Chola:

    (V. 26.) The heroic head-jewel of the Chola race named Kumarankusa, the
    glory of whose prowess was well-known, whose liberality was equal to that of
    Radheya (i.e., Karna) and whose conduct was upright, made the (*necessary*)
    request (*vijnapti*) for (*securing*) this (*grant*).

    Was he a Chola of Uraiyur or one of the other lines like the Telugu Chodas?

    He seems to have made the request on behalf of someone from Thirukattupalli,
    which would indicate Chola nadu, and not anywhere else. All this points to
    him being an ancestor of Vijayalaya...

  • This we discussed sometime back but could not find whom it is.

    But the Tirukkattuppally mentioned in the grant is now - shash found and sent the photographs- is ennore
  • Dear Sir,

    your contributions are very interesting.

    Can we have some introduction re yourself ?

    anbudan / sps

  • shash you only posted a piccasa album of an islan near ennore creek
  • Dear - The copper plate also mentions the Kottam and Nadu where Tirukkattuppalli is situated. It is Puzhal Kottam and Nadu is either Gnayiru or Otriyur.

    That is why we were wondering where this tirukkattuppalli is and then you found that near ennore. Since the location is close by, it could be Telugu Cholas.

    Can you check the details of kottam and nadu of the copper plate

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